KW WalsumARA
Antwerp/Rotterdam/Amsterdam. Major coal importing ports in northwest Europe.

Briquette, from the French “la brique” – the brick, a solid fuel used for heat generation.

A ship of about 80,000+ DWT. A vessel which is too large to transit via the Panama Canal and thus has to sail via the Cape of Good Hope from Pacific to Atlantic and vice versa.

Carbon dioxide – CO2
Carbon dioxide is a product resulting from a natural process where CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere. Together with other Greenhouse gases (such as methane) it safeguards the earth from too heavy irradiations by the sun. CO2 is also emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels.

(Nearly) CO2-free power plant
The so-called CO2-free power station emits considerably less CO2 which is captured during the process of power generation. According to the technology, the CO2 is captured before, during or after the process of generating electricity. The captured CO2 can then be transported and stored.

CCS is the technical term for ‘Carbon Capture and Storage’, the process which aims at capturing and storing CO2.

Cost, Insurance and Freight – method of selling cargo where the seller pays for loading costs, ocean freight and insurance.

Coking coal
Hard coal type having a suitable quality to produce coke (mostly bituminous coal). Coking coal contains 20 to 60% of volatile matters.

An expression of a ship´s carrying capacity, including the weight of the crew, passengers, cargo, fuel, ballast, drinking water, and stores.

The relation between the input and output of energy in the process of transformation. In power generation, this efficiency is currently 46% for hard coal and 43% for lignite. By 2020 efficiency should increase to 50%.

Energy mix
Mix of different energy carriers. A diversified energy mix with different energy carriers from different regions in the world can contribute to a secure energy supply and prevent shortages.

Free On Board – method of selling cargo excluding ocean freight and insurance, but including loading costs.

Fossil fuels
Hard coal, lignite, oil and gas.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The economic performance in a national economy which was reached within the country itself. The gross domestic product is better adapted as reference value for domestic energy market than the gross national income (GNI). The GNI also includes cash movements which do not have any influence on the domestic energy market.

Inexact term, but normally taken to mean a vessel of about 40-60,000 DWT.

Inexact term, but normally taken to mean a vessel of about 10-40,000 DWT.

Solid fossil fuel of organic origin. Calorific value: 8–12,000 kJ/kg.

Million tonnes of coal equivalent (= 0.697 Mtoe)

Million tonnes of oil equivalent (= 1.429 Mtce)

Opencast mining
Fossil fuels can be extracted in opencast pits after removing overburden and handling groundwater. The area is continuously being filled up and re-cultivated after extraction.

Soil layers (gravel, sand, silt and clay) which have to be removed in order to clear up the ressources in an opencast mine.

Vessel of about 60-80,000 DWT. (Technically the maximum size vessel that can transit via the Panama Canal – restriction of 32.2 m beam.)

Peta Joule (PJ)
Since 1978 Joule is the official international energy unit. Another unit is the tce (ton coal equivalent). 1 million tce is equivalent to 29,308 PJ.

Primary energy
Energy before any transformation: crude oil, hard coal, lignite, uranium, wood, solar radiation, hydro or wind power.

Landscape designing after mining activity has stopped, aiming at creating an ecologically useful landscape.

The entire amount of estimated reserves in a deposit or coalfield but which are at the time economically or/and technically not mineable.

Reserves are proved (or measured) geological reserves which are economically and technically minable in the short or medium term.

Soil layer containing raw materials such as coal, lignite or potash.

Term for suitably sized vessel readily available for short-term charter, usually in vicinity of charterer´s requirement.

Steam coal
Hard coal type used for power and heat generation. Important characteristic is the calorific value as well as the ash, water and sulphur content.